Immunotherapy has confirmed to be efficient against many serious conditions. But to treat problems in the brain, the antibodies must initial get past the hurdle of the blood-brain barrier. In a new research, a study group at Uppsala University explains their development of a new antibody design that improves brain uptake of antibodies nearly 100 times.
Immunotherapy requires treatment with antibodies; it is the quickest growing area in pharmaceutical development. In latest years, immunotherapy has efficiently been utilized to treat cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, and the outcomes of clinical studies look very appealing for various other diseases. Antibodies are unique in that they can be altered to strongly bind to nearly any disease-causing protein. To put it differently, major potential exists for new antibody based medicines.
The issue with immunotherapy for diseases influencing the brain is that the brain is secured by a very tight layer of cells, known as the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier efficiently stops large molecules, like as antibodies, from moving from the bloodstream into the brain. It has for that reason been challenging to use immunotherapy to treat Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, which impact the brain, along with cancerous tumours in the brain.
It has been identified for a long time that some big proteins are actively transferred across the blood-brain barrier. These involve a protein known as transferrin, whose main job is to bind to iron in the blood and then carry it to the brain. The study group driving this new study has used advantage of this process and altered the antibodies they want to transfer into the brain using components that bind to the transferrin receptor. Then, like a Trojan horse, the receptor transfers antibodies into the brain. The number of modifications to and placement of the antibodies have proven to be significant factors for making this approach as effective as possible.
Greta Hultqvist, researcher at Uppsala University said,
“We have positioned them so that each antibody only binds with one modification at a time, regardless of being modified in two places. Our design thus increases the possibilities of the antibody binding to the transferrin receptor in comparison with only one modification. We have successfully enhanced the amount of antibodies in the brain nearly 100 times, which is the most significant uptake enhancement that has ever been shown.”
To check out the new format, investigators have used it on an antibody that binds to a protein engaged in the course of Alzheimer’s disease. Without the alteration, they could only identify very small quantities of antibody in the brain in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, while they could identify high levels of the altered antibody in the same mice.
Concluding their research another researcher Dag Sehlin said,
“From a long term viewpoint, it’s probably that the new model can be used to successfully treat not only Alzheimer’s disease, but also other conditions affecting the brain.”