About 1 in 4 kids with type 1 diabetes are not aware they have the problem till they develop diabetic ketoacidosis – a possibly life-threatening problem. But in a new research, investigators claim to have recognized a chemical marker for Diabetes 1 in the breath of kids, providing the way for a breath examine that enables early diagnosis.
The study team, which includes Prof. Gus Hancock of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Oxford in the UK, presented their results in the Journal of Breath Research.
With respect to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Diabetes 1 impacts nearly 2 in every 1,000 kids and adolescents, and the figures are growing. A recent study identified that in between 2000 and 2009, incidence of Diabetes 1 involving kids aged under 9 years elevated by 21%.
Type 1 diabetes can be clinically diagnosed via a blood test, but Prof. Hancock notes that such kinds of tests can be stressful for young kids.
There are also some situations where Diabetes 1 is wrongly diagnosed in kids – an problem that was touched on in a latest spotlight feature from Clinical Research Society. The symptoms of the problem, which consist of enhanced thirst and urination, tiredness and weight loss, can be mistaken for signs of other conditions.
A 2008 research presented in the journal Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, for instance, identified that among 335 kids with new-onset type 1 diabetes, physicians in the beginning wrongly diagnosed the situation in 16% of conditions. In most of these situations, kids were wrongly diagnosed with a respiratory system infection.
A late diagnosis indicates that some kids are clinically diagnosed with Diabetes 1 when they have previously developed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). This takes place when serious lack of insulin leads to the body to break down fat for strength. This can guide to a build-up of acids known as ketones in the blood, which can lead to a diabetic coma and even death.
In this recent research, however, Prof. Hancock and co-workers identified that a sweet-smelling ketone disposed of via the breath – acetone – may be an earlier signal of ketone accumulation in the blood.
Enhanced breath acetone connected to enhanced β hydroxybutyrate levels in blood
To reach their results, the team gathered breath samples from 113 kids and teenagers older 7-18 years who had been clinically diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
The researchers measured amounts of acetone and one more ketone known as isoprene in the individuals’ breath and compared them with ketone and sugar levels in the blood, measurements of which were taken at the similar time as breath samples were obtained.
Prof. Hancock and co-workers identified that individuals who had enhanced levels of acetone in their breath also had enhanced levels of a ketone known as β hydroxybutyrate in their blood.
The team identified a weak connection between enhanced breath acetone and enhanced blood glucose but came to the conclusion that “single breath measurements of acetone do not deliver a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort.”
Leaving comments on their outcomes, Prof. Hancock states that:
“Our results have confirmed that it is relatively achievable to use measurements of breath acetone to approximate blood ketones.
If the connection between breath acetone and blood ketone amounts is true at greater levels of ketones, a easy breath test could guide with the management of sick days in kids with diabetes, avoiding hospital admissions by offering a caution of the possible growth of DKA.”
Prof. Hancock informed that the team has previously developed a prototype of a tiny hand-held device to evaluate ketone levels in the breathing, which is currently being analyzed in clinical studies.
“After clinical research, we trust that this will be used by individuals with Diabetes 1 to check whether or not they are going for DKA when they are not feeling well,” he said, including that the device may also be capable to help early diagnosis of Diabetes 1 in kids.